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What are countable and uncountable nouns?

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There are many different types of nouns in English. Objects, ideas, and places can all be nouns. Every noun is either countable or uncountable.

COUNTABLE NOUNS

Apple Book Government Student Island

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Information Water Cheese Wood Juice
Countable nouns are nouns you can count, and uncountable nouns are nouns you can't count. Countable nouns can take the singular or the plural form of a verb. Uncountable nouns always take the singular form of the verb.
Study the rules and examples below. 

WHAT ARE COUNTABLE NOUNS?

Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted. Nouns are considered content word meaning they provide the people, things, ideas, etc. about which we speak. Nouns are one of the 8 parts of speech
books, Italians, pictures, stations, men, etc.
A countable noun can be both singular - a friend, a house, etc. - or plural - a few apples, lots of trees, etc.
Use the singular form of the verb with a singular countable nouns:
There is a book on the table. That student is excellent!
Use plural form of the verb with a countable noun in the plural:
There are some students in the classroom. Those houses are very big, aren't they?

WHAT ARE UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS?

Uncountable nouns are materials, concepts, information, etc. which are not individual objects and can not be counted.
information, water, understanding, wood, cheese, etc.
Uncountable nouns are always singular. Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns:
There is some water in that pitcher. That is the equipment we use for the project.

ADJECTIVES WITH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.

Use a/an with countable nouns preceded by an adjective(s):
Tom is a very intelligent young man. I have a beautiful grey cat.
Do not use a/an indefinite article with uncountable nouns preceded by an adjective(s):
That is very useful information. There is some cold beer in the fridge.
Some uncountable nouns in English are countable in other languages. This can be confusing! Here is a list of some of the most common, easy to confuse uncountable nouns.
accommodation advice baggage bread equipment furniture garbage information knowledge luggage money news pasta progress research travel work
Obviously, uncountable nouns (especially different types of food) have forms that express plural concepts. These measurement of containers are countable:
water - a glass of water equipment - a piece of equipment cheese - a slice of cheese
Here are some of the most common containers /quantity expressions for these uncountable nouns:
accommodation - a place to stay advice - a piece of advice baggage - a piece of baggage bread - a slice of bread, a loaf of bread equipment - a piece of equipment furniture - a piece of furniture garbage - a piece of garbage information - a piece of information knowledge - a fact luggage - a piece of luggage, a bag, a suitcase money - a note, a coin news - a piece of news pasta - a plate of pasta, a serving of pasta research - a piece of research, a research project travel - a journey, a trip work - a job, a position
Here are some more common uncountable food types with their container /quantity expressions:
liquids (water, beer, wine, etc.) - a glass, a bottle, a jug of water, etc. cheese - a slice, a chunk, a piece of cheese meat - a piece, a slice, a pound of meat butter - a bar of butter ketchup, mayonnaise, mustard - a bottle of, a tube of ketchup, etc.
Questions
  1. What is a countable noun?

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