The Three Types of Phrasal Verbs

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Dorian Dwyer영어 (English)
2016년 12월 6일
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Phrasal verbs are, for some students, the most difficult vocabulary to tackle in English. This is because, ultimately, they just have to be memorised as they often don’t make sense at all. Why does ‘get up’ mean to move out of bed after waking up, ‘get down’ mean to dance, ‘get away’ mean to escape, ‘get in’ mean to enter a space (i.e. a car) or to arrive depending on context…? The list goes on endlessly.

But it’s not just meaning that needs to be learned but also the form. Here is some help in beginning to come to terms with the grammar of those dreaded phrasal verbs.

No object

Some phrasal verbs have no object, for example, ‘get up’. You don’t ‘get up bed’ or ‘get bed up’, you simply get up. Others in this list include ‘wake up’, ‘throw up’, ‘shut up’, ‘break down’, ‘catch on’, ‘dress up’, ‘eat out’, ‘pass out’, and ‘go back’.

Separable with an object

There are two types of phrasal verbs with an object: separable or inseparable. If the phrasal verb is separable this means that when you use the noun it can go between the verb and particle (adverb or preposition) or after the particle. For example, you can ‘take the rubbish out’ (between) or ‘take out the rubbish’ (after). When using the pronoun, the pronoun must go between. You cannot say ‘take out it’; you must say ‘take it out’.

Other examples in this list include ‘turn on/off’, ‘turn up/down’, ‘give up’, ‘give away’, ‘look up’, ‘set up’.

Inseparable with an object

In the final case, the phrasal verb has an object but is inseparable. This means that the object always goes after the verb and particle even when it’s a pronoun. So, for example, if you have to ‘look after the children’, you ‘look after them’. You do not ‘look them after’.

Other examples include ‘look forward to’, ‘look for’,’ ‘get on with’, and ‘take account of’.

This means that until it becomes natural through hearing and speaking you have to memorise the phrasal verbs and their categories. Additionally (and unfortunately for learners) most native English speakers consider phrasal verbs ‘easy’ language because they’re small words that we often use with children. So they may opt to use phrasal verbs rather than a big word, assuming that the big word is more difficult.

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I have ten years’ experience teaching EFL and ESL – from levels A1 to C2. Though I mainly taught Italian students during my time in Italy (mostly preparing them for CEFR exams including IELTS, Cambridge and TOEFL), I began by teaching ESL in London to mostly Turkish, Bangladeshi and Indian students. Since returning to the UK, I have been teaching CLIL courses to Japanese high school students and General English classes (particularly to Swiss-German groups). I am CELTA qualified, and additionally I have a PGCE in English which involved one year teaching in secondary schools around London. I believe I can thus claim a breadth of experience of different types of students. Due to my experience of living abroad it’s quite easy for me to sympathise with foreign language learners as they may at times feel out of sorts and embarrassed. I not only know exactly how this feels myself – since I lived abroad for six years – but I often find that these are the students with whom I have the strongest rapport because we have similar interests and life goals. In my position as a Director of Studies in Italy I had to demonstrate my organisational skills, especially as the role was in addition to my work as a senior teacher, I was responsible for co-ordinating and liaising with other teachers about timetables, materials etc., as well as providing training and feedback. I also have experience writing exams and proofreading CLIL textbooks. I think this demonstrates my breadth of knowledge both about English but also about exam-taking and what is required for that.
Flag
영어 (English)
globe
영국
time
4
영어 (English)
원어민
,
이탈리아어 (Italian)
B2
I have ten years’ experience teaching EFL and ESL – from levels A1 to C2. Though I mainly taught Italian students during my time in Italy (mostly preparing them for CEFR exams including IELTS, Cambridge and TOEFL), I began by teaching ESL in London to mostly Turkish, Bangladeshi and Indian students. Since returning to the UK, I have been teaching CLIL courses to Japanese high school students and General English classes (particularly to Swiss-German groups). I am CELTA qualified, and additionally I have a PGCE in English which involved one year teaching in secondary schools around London. I believe I can thus claim a breadth of experience of different types of students. Due to my experience of living abroad it’s quite easy for me to sympathise with foreign language learners as they may at times feel out of sorts and embarrassed. I not only know exactly how this feels myself – since I lived abroad for six years – but I often find that these are the students with whom I have the strongest rapport because we have similar interests and life goals. In my position as a Director of Studies in Italy I had to demonstrate my organisational skills, especially as the role was in addition to my work as a senior teacher, I was responsible for co-ordinating and liaising with other teachers about timetables, materials etc., as well as providing training and feedback. I also have experience writing exams and proofreading CLIL textbooks. I think this demonstrates my breadth of knowledge both about English but also about exam-taking and what is required for that.

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